One of the most common ecological problems of coastal and inland water bodies worldwide is represented by increasing anthropogenic eutrophication and pollution. According to the EU WFD, specified biological, hydromorphological and physico-chemical parameters of water bodies have to be monitored on a regular basis. The high spectral resolution of EnMAP in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) region will allow the assessment of the proposed optically visible parameters including chlorophyll-a content for determination of the phytoplankton-biomass, algae composition and blooms, emerse and submerse macrophytes as well as the secchi-depth and the structure of littoral. Additionally, other important water quality parameters such as suspended matter and dissolved organic carbon concentration can be monitored with the EnMAP sensor.
The following main scientific tasks have been identified in regard to coastal zones/inland water issues:
- Improvement of the identification of different substances by their spectral characteristics, such as improved chlorophyll quantification, the differentiation between ecological important phytoplankton groups and dissolved organic compounds; the identification of different fractions of suspended mineral and organic particles
- Monitoring the variety of algal species in space and time as a bio-indicator of changing lake ecology
- Monitoring of (potentially toxic) algal blooms in eutrophicated coastal and inland waters
- Estimation of processes such as primary production in inland and coastal waters and suspended matter transport and its impact on coastal ecosystems
- Distribution of sediments in tidal flats and their phytobenthos, wetlands, mangrove forests and submerse and emerse macrophytes distribution
- Monitoring of coastal erosion and changes in coastal morpholog