EnMAP data will improve identification and monitoring of both natural and man-made hazards as well as vulnerability and risk. Overall, the main benefit of hyperspectral data lies in their potential for a more detailed, material-oriented characterization of factors contributing to hazards.
The following main scientific tasks are related to hazards and risks:
- Monitoring of tectonic, lithological and soil parameters for better characterization of factors predisposing landslide formation to improve hazard assessments;
- Detection and mapping of swelling soils occurrences to assess swelling potential and to improve hazard assessment and application of adequate countermeasures;
- Detection and monitoring of flood occurrences to assess flood risks, damaged areas, and water quality;
- Monitoring of the state of vegetation during drought periods to improve the accuracy of ecological models and to develop drought-preventive measures for agricultural areas;
- Investigation of volcanic systems with regard to their crater types, lava flow types and volcanic deposits to improve risk assessment and evacuation measures;
- Monitoring land degradation processes (erosion and deposition) by providing regular maps of vegetation distribution and characteristics (considering highly variable background substrates) and soil status, such as organic matter (TOC), CaCO3, iron content, infiltration rate, salinity, and physical crusting development;
- Identification and quantification of various soil contaminants through their specific spectral signatures or indicators (e.g., bio-indicators based on eco-toxicological effects on vegetation) linked to change in chemical composition of the polluted soil;
- The detection limit of oil at the spatial resolution of EnMAP;
- A better understanding of the complex spectral behavior of petroleum in mixture with water in maritime and soil of different mineralogical and physical properties on land surfaces;
- A robust technique for identification of oil-type under variable background conditions;
- Identification of sources, sinks and pathways of marine litter during large-scale plastics discharge events;
- Monitoring of mining sites for their sustainable management; and
- Monitoring and quantification of the distribution of toxic materials in waste dumping sites and assess the degree of environmental contamination and the success of remediation strategies.